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[Discusses the development of medieval commentary about women’s preaching, some of which are contradictory, and how this influences depictions in saint’s lives and by Wycliffites.] Block, Edward A. “The Issue of Theological Style in Late Medieval Disputations.” 5 (2002): 1-21. Of special interest here is a chapter on the , he provocatively follows a line of reasoning instanced in multiple Wycliffite tracts on translation. Drawing on pedagogical theorists such as Freire and Giroux as well as a wealth of later medieval texts, Copeland shows how teachers radically transformed inherited ideas about classrooms and pedagogy as they brought their teaching to adult learners. “John Wyclif on Papal Election, Correction, and Deposition.” 69 (2007): 141-85. Because Holy Scripture formed, for Wyclif, the sole foundation of Christian society, it would fall to the magister sacrae paginae to render authoritative decisions on ecclesiastical governance” (141-42). Wyclif exercised his rights as a university master to dissent from ecclesiastical determinations that ran contrary to the truth as revealed in Scripture. “A Manuscript of the First Wycliffite Translation of the Bible.” . The English reformers, however, did more than merely reject Gregory as an authority. Peikola examines one form of tract, the catalogue, listing 22 different catalogues, discussing their structure, lexical markings, types, audiences, and their similarities to scholastic, judicial, and legislative textual practices. The major part of the article surveys variation in the form and content of the tables, serving the needs of genre description and paving the way for further textual scholarship (a preliminary list of the Wycliffite tables is presented in Appendix A). [One of several derivative biographies published on the quincentenary of Wyclif’s death. The volume includes a helpful index of “Churchwardens’ accounts before 1570.”] Peterson, Kate Oelzner. “Sowing Difficulty: The Parson’s Tale, Vernacular Commentary, and The Nature of Chaucerian Dissent.” 25 (2004): 299-330. Price and Ryrie attend to both stylistic and political arguments that arose over Biblical translation between the late fourteenth and early seventeenth centuries.] Pyper, Rachel. [Concludes that Chaucer uses the Wycliffite translation, but see also Holton, “Which Bible did Chaucer Use? When all the information on the movement which we possess, however, is brought together, one cannot but feel that they had a greater influence on their own time than has heretofore been allowed: Not only did the early reformers consider them very important, but today also, in spite of predilections for economic interpretations of history, they must be regarded as one of the important sources of the Scottish Reformation.”] Renna, Thomas. It contains chapters on “Wyclif and his Theology,” the “Early diffusion of Lollardy,” “Survival and Revival,” and “From Lollardy to Protestantism.” In the process, “whilst endorsing the traditional view that Lollardy was indeed the lay face of Wycliffism, . Far from being a Lollard minister, it suggests, Ramsbury was nothing but a confidence trickster.

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[Bradley argues for more attention to religious experience in the study of vernacular theology and models such study with his comparative reading of Love’s . Fifteenth Century Bristol and Lollard Reconsidered.” Clark 43-62. “‘But and Alle Thingus in Mesure, and Noumbre, and Peis Thou Disposedist’: Some Notes on the Role of Wisdom 11, 21 in Wyclif’s Writings.” Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie Médiévales 80.1 (2013): 109-143. She discusses Walter Brut’s use of Mary Magdalene “in his defense of women’s ability–and right–to preach as well as perform other priestly sacraments” (142), and argues that “Late medieval religious politics–of gender, preaching, and the vernacular–unquestionably shadow the public teaching of the Digby play’s Mary Magdalene” (147).] Collinson, P. Starting from the main thesis of Wyclif’s metaphysics, that the universal and individual are really identical but formally distinct, Oxford Realists introduced a new type of predication, based on a partial identity between the entities for which the subject and predicate stood, called predication by essence, and then redefined the traditional post-Aristotelian categories of essential and accidental predication in terms of this partial identity. “Exegesis of the End: Limitations of Lollard Apocalypticism as Revealed in a Commentary on Matthew 24.” 23.4 (Dec. [Abstract: “Lollard writing is characterised by a preoccupation with the end times, but the kind of eschatological mindset the texts reflect has become a matter of some debate. The book is a comparative study, drawing from a variety of unpublished commentaries as well as more familiar works by Nicholas of Lyra, John Wyclif, Jean Gerson, Denys the Carthusian, Wendelin Steinbach, Desiderius Erasmus, Philip Melanchthon, and John Calvin.”] —. [This essay analyzes Middle English sermons on the Parable of the Labourers in the Vineyard, pointing out common interpretations in Lollard and mainstream sermons, including Mirk’s Festial and Wimbledon’s Sermon, that encourage workers to remain within a three-estates model. Rashdall’s history, though, remains helpful because in his notes and his Appendices he refers to many original documents.

Also see the list of Article Collections (to which essays on this list are now linked) and the Bibliography of Primary Sources. According to the author’s abstract, “This paper shows how Wyclif is able at the same time (i) to claim that whatever is is a proposition (‘pan-propositionalism’) and (ii) to develop a nontrivial theory of propositional truth and falsity. [Gray returns to this important Carthusian manuscript for a full discussion of the relationships among its images and lyrics, and its relevance to the “spiritual landscape of late medieval England” (116).] Green, Richard F. [Argues that the odd juxtaposition in Purvey’s Heresies and Errors (as recorded by Lavenham) of a discussion of the marriage of those linked in spiritual affinity (godparents) with the question of whether bastards can inherit the throne can be explained by the situation surrounding John of Gaunt’s marriage to Katherine Swynford and his ambitions for the Beauforts (his illegitimate children by Katherine) in 1396. In at least one notable case, the mid-fourteenth century reforms of Archbishop Thoresby, York identified the problems and found the solutions before Lollardy existed. advance an alternative orthodox position, one that identifies points of consensus, rather than disagreement, with lollard critiques. 1384) is that of the inflexible reformer whose views of the Church were driven by a strict determinism which divided humanity into two eternally fixed categories of the predestined and the damned. Special attention is given to collaboration with German-speaking editors, despite contemporary political tensions, and their contrasting editorial methods.] Spinka, Matthew. To a certain extent Wyclif ‘s explanations fit in with Aristotle’s understanding of language.

Since these bibliographies are meant to be complete listings of texts and studies relevant to Wycliffism, please let us know of any new references which should be included. The study has two parts: 1) Starting from Wyclif’s fivefold propositional typology—including a propositio realis (real proposition) and a sic esse sicut propositio significat (a fact)—we will analyse (a) the three different kinds of real predication, (b) the distinction between primary and secondary signification of propositions (the latter being an instantiation of the former) and (c) the status of logical truth as opposed to (but depending on) metaphysical truth. “John Ball’s Letters: Literary History and Historical Literature.” Hanawalt 176-200. This shows that Lollard influence on Gaunt, or at least on his extended household, lasted longer than has sometimes been supposed.] Green, Samuel Gosnell. Heresy was but one response to what were perceived as problems of the late Medieval spirituality; the church of York offered its own response to those problems. The article includes extensive discussion of the cross and its relation to affective devotion.] Harper-Bill, Christopher. In point of fact, however, Wyclif’s understanding of salvation is quite nuanced and well worth careful study.” The purpose of Levy’s essay, in which he considers earlier work by Lechler, Robson, and Kenny, “is to offer a full appraisal of Wyclif’s soteriology in its many facets. of such doctrine from Wyclif’s Latin works to the vernacular records of fifteenth-century heresy trials, we may perhaps gain a little insight into how certain men and women, from East Anglia and Kent, sought to theorize the business of love and marriage in light of a version of Christianity which combined a strong predestinarian impulse with a strict puritanism in sexual matters” (190). Aristotle recognises that we can talk about substances in many different ways; we can introduce them by using ‘substantial’ names, but also by using names derived from the substances’ accidental features. [Steiner concentrates on the so-called “Long” and “Short Charters of Christ.” She argues that “late medieval preachers and polemicists used documents, both fictive and real, to challenge orthodox notions of textual authority and to produce an oppositional rhetoric.

These older studies are included here for those interested in the history of the study of Wycliffism, not for the study of Wycliffism itself. [According to the abstract, “The article considers the origin of the Hungarian-speaking Hussites in Moldavia and the factors that led to their growth, together with the nature of their beliefs. past, future, modal) and (b) the relation between contents of the divine mind as ‘arch-truth-makers’ and eternal as well as contingent truths.”] —. [This paper examines Wyclif’s critique of medieval Eucharistic theology in light of fourteenth-century debates about the possibility of and consequences of divine deception. “English Books In and Out of Court from Edward III to Henry VII.” . Cornelius Mayer, Willigis Eckermann, and Coelestin Patock. “In their attack on official discourse, on its tendency to conceal and confuse, these writers open up more generally the issue of language and authority. “Church, Society, and Politics in the Early Fifteenth Century as Viewed from the English Pulpit.” 72.4 (Fall, 2007): 59.71. Peter Partridge and MS Digby 98.” Barr and Hutchinson 41-65. What we should find is that Wyclif’s soteriology makes a good deal of room for human free will, albeit in cooperation with divine grace. [This essay analyzes De statu innocencie, a speculative treatise Wyclif wrote about the condition of humanity in Eden. John Buridan uses Aristotle’s principle of categorisation to show how language works, but for him the activity of categorising things is to be explained in terms of our mental activities only. Harrison Thomson on the Bibliography of Primary Sources under the Works of John Wyclif.] Steiner, Emily.

Start instead with Hudson’s 1988 study of Thomas Netter as a Resource for Contemporary Theology.” Bergström-Allen and Copsey 335-361. “Christ’s Humanity and Piers Plowman: Contexts and Political Implications.” Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2000. “The Sacrament of the Altar in Piers Plowman and the Late Medieval Church in England.” Dimmick, Simpson, and Zeeman 63-80. We must not begin our reading of the poem with the assumption that to set aside the dominant, orthodox representation of the sacrament of the altar is to set aside sacramental theology and the sacrament of the alter–even if that is what orthodox polemic was not claiming” (65, 67).] —. The developments that led to their eventual demise are discussed. Language exists as a material reality because it is a form of social behavior” (1). “Intentionality and Truth-Making: Augustine’s Influence on Burley and Wyclif’s Propositional Semantics.” 45 (2007): 283-97. Throughout , Wyclif rejects the doctrine of transubstantiation because it seems to turn God into a liar. “The Lollards’ Threefold Biblical Agenda.” Bose and Hornbeck 211-226. “University College, Oxford, MS 97 and its Relationship to the Simeon Manuscript (British Library Add. At once constituting heterodoxy and masking it, their discussions of credulity urge a great public awareness of discourse and provide a rhetoric to that end.” Grudin concludes the article with a discussion of credulity in several Canterbury tales.] Gurevich, Aaron. [“This article discusses the difficulty in teaching and translating works by authors Margery Kempe and Julian of Norwich. “English Biblical Texts Before Lollardy and their Fate.” Somerset, Havens, and Pitard 141-53. [On Partridge’s “Notebook,” describing the contents of the manuscript and how it reveals his turn towards “favouring heretical, Lollard opinions” (44).] —. Furthermore, we will see that Wyclif most often presents a God who is at once just and merciful, extending grace and the possibility of salvation to all” (279-80). “John Wyclif: Christian Patience in a Time of War.” 66.2 (June 2005): 330-357. Minnis characterizes its subject matter as a typical subject of inquiry for scholastic theologians and often compares Wyclif’s views on bodily pleasure, death, and dominion to Aquinas’ writings.] Moessner, Lilo. Wyclif, on the other hand, reads much into the requirement that all our linguistic distinctions should have their basis in extramental reality: our conceptualisations not only pertain to individual substances, but also parallel their distinct ontic layers.”] Spufford, P. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2005. [Stanbury situates Chaucer’s representation of images within the Lollard image debate.] —. Katherine, Knighton’s Lollards, and the Breaking of Idols.” Dimmick, Simpson, and Zeeman 131-50. How [Stanbury asks] was the drama of the image shaped by contemporary discourses about images as 46.1 (2015): 249-76. “Inventing Legality: Documentary Culture and Lollard Preaching.” .

[Bradley argues for more attention to religious experience in the study of vernacular theology and models such study with his comparative reading of Love’s . Fifteenth Century Bristol and Lollard Reconsidered.” Clark 43-62. “‘But and Alle Thingus in Mesure, and Noumbre, and Peis Thou Disposedist’: Some Notes on the Role of Wisdom 11, 21 in Wyclif’s Writings.” Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie Médiévales 80.1 (2013): 109-143. She discusses Walter Brut’s use of Mary Magdalene “in his defense of women’s ability–and right–to preach as well as perform other priestly sacraments” (142), and argues that “Late medieval religious politics–of gender, preaching, and the vernacular–unquestionably shadow the public teaching of the Digby play’s Mary Magdalene” (147).] Collinson, P. Starting from the main thesis of Wyclif’s metaphysics, that the universal and individual are really identical but formally distinct, Oxford Realists introduced a new type of predication, based on a partial identity between the entities for which the subject and predicate stood, called predication by essence, and then redefined the traditional post-Aristotelian categories of essential and accidental predication in terms of this partial identity. “Exegesis of the End: Limitations of Lollard Apocalypticism as Revealed in a Commentary on Matthew 24.” 23.4 (Dec. [Abstract: “Lollard writing is characterised by a preoccupation with the end times, but the kind of eschatological mindset the texts reflect has become a matter of some debate. The book is a comparative study, drawing from a variety of unpublished commentaries as well as more familiar works by Nicholas of Lyra, John Wyclif, Jean Gerson, Denys the Carthusian, Wendelin Steinbach, Desiderius Erasmus, Philip Melanchthon, and John Calvin.”] —. [This essay analyzes Middle English sermons on the Parable of the Labourers in the Vineyard, pointing out common interpretations in Lollard and mainstream sermons, including Mirk’s Festial and Wimbledon’s Sermon, that encourage workers to remain within a three-estates model. Rashdall’s history, though, remains helpful because in his notes and his Appendices he refers to many original documents.

Also see the list of Article Collections (to which essays on this list are now linked) and the Bibliography of Primary Sources. According to the author’s abstract, “This paper shows how Wyclif is able at the same time (i) to claim that whatever is is a proposition (‘pan-propositionalism’) and (ii) to develop a nontrivial theory of propositional truth and falsity. [Gray returns to this important Carthusian manuscript for a full discussion of the relationships among its images and lyrics, and its relevance to the “spiritual landscape of late medieval England” (116).] Green, Richard F. [Argues that the odd juxtaposition in Purvey’s Heresies and Errors (as recorded by Lavenham) of a discussion of the marriage of those linked in spiritual affinity (godparents) with the question of whether bastards can inherit the throne can be explained by the situation surrounding John of Gaunt’s marriage to Katherine Swynford and his ambitions for the Beauforts (his illegitimate children by Katherine) in 1396. In at least one notable case, the mid-fourteenth century reforms of Archbishop Thoresby, York identified the problems and found the solutions before Lollardy existed. advance an alternative orthodox position, one that identifies points of consensus, rather than disagreement, with lollard critiques. 1384) is that of the inflexible reformer whose views of the Church were driven by a strict determinism which divided humanity into two eternally fixed categories of the predestined and the damned. Special attention is given to collaboration with German-speaking editors, despite contemporary political tensions, and their contrasting editorial methods.] Spinka, Matthew. To a certain extent Wyclif ‘s explanations fit in with Aristotle’s understanding of language.

Since these bibliographies are meant to be complete listings of texts and studies relevant to Wycliffism, please let us know of any new references which should be included. The study has two parts: 1) Starting from Wyclif’s fivefold propositional typology—including a propositio realis (real proposition) and a sic esse sicut propositio significat (a fact)—we will analyse (a) the three different kinds of real predication, (b) the distinction between primary and secondary signification of propositions (the latter being an instantiation of the former) and (c) the status of logical truth as opposed to (but depending on) metaphysical truth. “John Ball’s Letters: Literary History and Historical Literature.” Hanawalt 176-200. This shows that Lollard influence on Gaunt, or at least on his extended household, lasted longer than has sometimes been supposed.] Green, Samuel Gosnell. Heresy was but one response to what were perceived as problems of the late Medieval spirituality; the church of York offered its own response to those problems. The article includes extensive discussion of the cross and its relation to affective devotion.] Harper-Bill, Christopher. In point of fact, however, Wyclif’s understanding of salvation is quite nuanced and well worth careful study.” The purpose of Levy’s essay, in which he considers earlier work by Lechler, Robson, and Kenny, “is to offer a full appraisal of Wyclif’s soteriology in its many facets. of such doctrine from Wyclif’s Latin works to the vernacular records of fifteenth-century heresy trials, we may perhaps gain a little insight into how certain men and women, from East Anglia and Kent, sought to theorize the business of love and marriage in light of a version of Christianity which combined a strong predestinarian impulse with a strict puritanism in sexual matters” (190). Aristotle recognises that we can talk about substances in many different ways; we can introduce them by using ‘substantial’ names, but also by using names derived from the substances’ accidental features. [Steiner concentrates on the so-called “Long” and “Short Charters of Christ.” She argues that “late medieval preachers and polemicists used documents, both fictive and real, to challenge orthodox notions of textual authority and to produce an oppositional rhetoric.

These older studies are included here for those interested in the history of the study of Wycliffism, not for the study of Wycliffism itself. [According to the abstract, “The article considers the origin of the Hungarian-speaking Hussites in Moldavia and the factors that led to their growth, together with the nature of their beliefs. past, future, modal) and (b) the relation between contents of the divine mind as ‘arch-truth-makers’ and eternal as well as contingent truths.”] —. [This paper examines Wyclif’s critique of medieval Eucharistic theology in light of fourteenth-century debates about the possibility of and consequences of divine deception. “English Books In and Out of Court from Edward III to Henry VII.” . Cornelius Mayer, Willigis Eckermann, and Coelestin Patock. “In their attack on official discourse, on its tendency to conceal and confuse, these writers open up more generally the issue of language and authority. “Church, Society, and Politics in the Early Fifteenth Century as Viewed from the English Pulpit.” 72.4 (Fall, 2007): 59.71. Peter Partridge and MS Digby 98.” Barr and Hutchinson 41-65. What we should find is that Wyclif’s soteriology makes a good deal of room for human free will, albeit in cooperation with divine grace. [This essay analyzes De statu innocencie, a speculative treatise Wyclif wrote about the condition of humanity in Eden. John Buridan uses Aristotle’s principle of categorisation to show how language works, but for him the activity of categorising things is to be explained in terms of our mental activities only. Harrison Thomson on the Bibliography of Primary Sources under the Works of John Wyclif.] Steiner, Emily.

Start instead with Hudson’s 1988 study of Thomas Netter as a Resource for Contemporary Theology.” Bergström-Allen and Copsey 335-361. “Christ’s Humanity and Piers Plowman: Contexts and Political Implications.” Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2000. “The Sacrament of the Altar in Piers Plowman and the Late Medieval Church in England.” Dimmick, Simpson, and Zeeman 63-80. We must not begin our reading of the poem with the assumption that to set aside the dominant, orthodox representation of the sacrament of the altar is to set aside sacramental theology and the sacrament of the alter–even if that is what orthodox polemic was not claiming” (65, 67).] —. The developments that led to their eventual demise are discussed. Language exists as a material reality because it is a form of social behavior” (1). “Intentionality and Truth-Making: Augustine’s Influence on Burley and Wyclif’s Propositional Semantics.” 45 (2007): 283-97. Throughout , Wyclif rejects the doctrine of transubstantiation because it seems to turn God into a liar. “The Lollards’ Threefold Biblical Agenda.” Bose and Hornbeck 211-226. “University College, Oxford, MS 97 and its Relationship to the Simeon Manuscript (British Library Add. At once constituting heterodoxy and masking it, their discussions of credulity urge a great public awareness of discourse and provide a rhetoric to that end.” Grudin concludes the article with a discussion of credulity in several Canterbury tales.] Gurevich, Aaron. [“This article discusses the difficulty in teaching and translating works by authors Margery Kempe and Julian of Norwich. “English Biblical Texts Before Lollardy and their Fate.” Somerset, Havens, and Pitard 141-53. [On Partridge’s “Notebook,” describing the contents of the manuscript and how it reveals his turn towards “favouring heretical, Lollard opinions” (44).] —. Furthermore, we will see that Wyclif most often presents a God who is at once just and merciful, extending grace and the possibility of salvation to all” (279-80). “John Wyclif: Christian Patience in a Time of War.” 66.2 (June 2005): 330-357. Minnis characterizes its subject matter as a typical subject of inquiry for scholastic theologians and often compares Wyclif’s views on bodily pleasure, death, and dominion to Aquinas’ writings.] Moessner, Lilo. Wyclif, on the other hand, reads much into the requirement that all our linguistic distinctions should have their basis in extramental reality: our conceptualisations not only pertain to individual substances, but also parallel their distinct ontic layers.”] Spufford, P. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2005. [Stanbury situates Chaucer’s representation of images within the Lollard image debate.] —. Katherine, Knighton’s Lollards, and the Breaking of Idols.” Dimmick, Simpson, and Zeeman 131-50. How [Stanbury asks] was the drama of the image shaped by contemporary discourses about images as 46.1 (2015): 249-76. “Inventing Legality: Documentary Culture and Lollard Preaching.” .

This list is divided alphabetically into four roughly equal parts: A-D, E-J, K-P, and R-Z. “‘I Herd an Harping on a Hille’: Its Text and Context.” . Since many of the women she describes are orthodox, this book also illustrates the range of belief and practice along the continuum from orthodox to heterodox. [In response to the increasingly interdisciplinary study of Lollardy, Forrest explores how “lollard studies” have diverged from the disciplinary study of medieval history. “Heresy Inquisition and Authorship, 1400-1560.” Flannery and Walker 130-145. “Trying Testimony: Heresy, Interrogation and the English Woman Writer, 1400—1670.” Ph. It argues that women writers turned discourses meant to incriminate them to their own instructional purposes. 1438), Protestant reformer Anne Askew (d.1546), and Quakers Katherine Evans (d.1692) and Sarah Cheevers (fl. “The very shape of what emerged as ‘Lollardy,’ as well as ‘orthodoxy,’ was determined by the very rich . [Ghosh analyzes the combination of scholastic discourse and anti-academic polemic in a Wycliffite treatise on the Eucharist (De oblacione iugis sacrifcii), placing the treatise in the context a larger fifteenth-century debate over the appropriate method and style for theological writing, given its widening audience.] —. Wyclif did not summarily dismiss the contents of those thirteenth- and fourteenth-century collections of papal letters which began with Gregory IX’s 1234 Liber Extra. Scattergood argues that Cole probably dates the text too early.] —. [Scattergood examines ways in which, unlike other lollards, Oldcastle “was a special case. “An English Version of Some Events in Bohemia During 1434.” . [While this book does not discuss Wyclif or his contemporaries directly, it gives a very helpful discussion of many of this issues, such as the varieties and effects of different kinds of pardons, which play out in the texts of the later fourteenth century.] Shagan, Ethan. Therefore, it concerns political as well as religious history, since it asserts that, even at the popular level, political and theological processes were inseparable in the sixteenth century.”] Shepherd, Stephen. The paper distinguishes two common medieval notions of a universal, the Aristotelian/ Porphyrian one in terms of predication and the Boethian one in terms of being metaphysically common to many.